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Possible impossibles: how science can help create a better future

Possible impossibles: The past, present and future of science in Victoria

Research Note

No. 5, August 2020

Annie Wright and Meg Bosanko

Research & Inquiries Unit

Parliamentary Library & Information Service

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Holly Mclean, Debra Reeves, Caley Otter, Trish McCudden, Andres Lomp and Renee Beale for their help in the preparation of this paper.

Suggested citation:

A. Wright & M. Bosanko (2020) Possible impossibles: The past, present and future of science in Victoria, Parliamentary Library & Information Service, Melbourne, Parliament of Victoria.

Cover image: Freepik

ISSN 2204-4779 (Print) 2204-4787 (Online)

Research Note: No. 5, August 2020.

© 2020 Parliamentary Library & Information Service, Parliament of Victoria

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Contents

Executive Summary. 1

Possible impossible: Stopping influenza in its tracks. 2

 

 

Executive Summary

For National Science Week 2020, the Parliament of Victoria in conjunction with the Royal Society of Victoria will present an online community forum centred around the theme, 'Possible impossibles: how science can help create a better future'.

This paper highlights a small selection of the 'impossibles' made possible with science and technology in the state of Victoria:

 

Development of the flu treatment Zanamivir

Stopping influenza infections from spreading through the body

 

Development of socially aware robots

Improving the way robots interact with people

 

Discovery of the rotavirus

Saving thousands of children's lives every year by preventing gastroenteritis

 

Creation of the Yume food marketplace and the KeepCup

Reducing waste from the commercial food sector and single-use coffee cups

 

Invention of atomic absorption spectroscopy

Allowing laboratories to rapidly identify more than 65 elements

 

Invention of the bionic ear and eye

Restoring the ability to hear running speech and the ability to see light and movement

 

Radiocarbon dating of the eel traps at Budj Bim

Supporting the Gunditjmara to protect their cultural heritage

 

Citizen science projects to protect marine life

Bringing ordinary Victorians together to do science

 

Exploration of COVID-19 nanobody therapy and saliva tests

Researching innovative new ways to test for and prevent COVID-19 infections

 

Possible impossible: Stopping influenza in its tracks

 

Relenza

Source: CSIRO (2019)

The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is responsible for some of Australia's most well-known inventions (Wi-Fi!), including the development of the first drug to successfully treat influenza.[footnote 1] Called Zanamivir (but commercially known as Relenza), the anti-flu drug was developed in the 1980s and 1990s through a collaboration with the Victorian College of Pharmacy (now part of Monash University) and the Australian National University. As a typical Australian winter will see around 3,000 flu-related deaths, the development of Relenza is a breakthrough discovery.[footnote 2]

Leading the CSIRO's development of the drug was Dr Peter Colman. With his colleagues, Colman used x-ray crystallography to locate a region on the surface proteins of the flu virus that does not change in any of its strains. They developed a drug which 'locks' onto this section of the virus and stops the infection progressing.[footnote 3]

Relenza was the first in a new class of anti-viral agents called neuraminidase inhibitors and is one of the first examples of 'structure-based drug design', where the structure of the protein was used to guide the chemistry. Colman describes the moment that he had a breakthrough in a typical Victorian way— with a footy match going on in the background!

One Saturday afternoon in 1982, after beating my way through the football traffic jam around Princes Park, I watched results come clanking back over the old-line printer. I saw what I wanted and realised my goal was achievable, not the result itself, but apparently the avenue to it. At exactly the moment as the Line Printer fell silent… a cheer went up from 30,000 people at Princes Park and I wondered was there anywhere else in the world that the inexorable advance of science would be so welcomed.[footnote 4]

Peter Colman, Mark von Itzein and Graeme Laver shared the Australia Prize for their achievement.[footnote 5]

 

Possible impossible: Designing friendly robots

The Niska ice cream bar in Federation Square offers more than a cool treat on a hot Melbourne day. Customers also get to imagine a future where robots work alongside humans in everyday life.

 

Pepper the robot

Source: Niska (2019)

A human-like robot named Pepper greets customers and takes their orders, while a mechanical arm named Eka scoops the ice cream.[footnote 6] The bowtie-clad Tony, also a robot, is in charge of toppings as well as the vinyl turntable, acting as DJ for the team's impromptu dance parties.[footnote 7]

The robots at Niska showcase the evolution of robotics across the last 40 years. Roboticists have noted that the development of sensorised controls, such as those that allow Eka to determine how much ice cream is left in the carton, was the catalyst for the rise of industrial robots in the 1980s.[footnote 8] In the 2000s and 2010s, advances in artificial intelligence brought robots beyond factories and into fields ranging from hospitality to strategy games to autonomous navigation.[footnote 9] For example, Pepper's perception modules allow him to recognise and converse with customers in 15 languages.[footnote 10]

Milestones in robotics

Source: adapted from Zamalloa et al. (2017)

When robots' jobs were limited to mechanical tasks, it was straightforward to measure how well they performed. For example, Eka's job is to scoop ice cream into a dish. Her performance can be readily quantified—e.g. how often she scoops the right amount of ice cream and how quickly she does it. Roboticists can use objective measurements like these to compare robots and gauge developers' progress over time.

But do these tools still work when a robot's job isn't so simple? Does it matter how customers perceive a service robot like Pepper, or is it enough that he simply gets their orders right? Should Tony be judged by his hot fudge drizzling skills or the quality of his dance moves?

To help bridge this gap, Professor Elizabeth Croft and her colleagues turned to the field of psychology. Drawing on methods used by psychologists to quantify subjective experiences, they developed a standardised measurement tool for human-robot interaction called the Godspeed questionnaire:[footnote 11]

Godspeed I: Anthropomorphism

Please rate your impression of the robot on these scales:

Fake

1

2

3

4

5

Natural

Machinelike

1

2

3

4

5

Humanlike

Unconscious

1

2

3

4

5

Conscious

Artificial

1

2

3

4

5

Lifelike

Moving rigidly

1

2

3

4

5

Moving elegantly

Godspeed II: Animacy

Please rate your impression of the robot on these scales:

Dead

1

2

3

4

5

Alive

Stagnant

1

2

3

4

5

Lively

Mechanical

1

2

3

4

5

Organic

Artificial

1

2

3

4

5

Lifelike

Inert

1

2

3

4

5

Interactive

Apathetic

1

2

3

4

5

Responsive

Godspeed III: Likeability

Please rate your impression of the robot on these scales:

Dislike

1

2

3

4

5

Like

Unfriendly

1

2

3

4

5

Friendly

Unkind

1

2

3

4

5

Kind

Unpleasant

1

2

3

4

5

Pleasant

Awful

1

2

3

4

5

Nice

Godspeed IV: Perceived Intelligence

Please rate your impression of the robot on these scales:

Incompetent

1

2

3

4

5

Competent

Ignorant

1

2

3

4

5

Knowledgeable

Irresponsible

1

2

3

4

5

Responsible

Unintelligent

1

2

3

4

5

Intelligent

Foolish

1

2

3

4

5

Sensible

Godspeed V: Perceived Safety

Please rate your emotional state on these scales:

Anxious

1

2

3

4

5

Relaxed

Agitated

1

2

3

4

5

Calm

Quiescent

1

2

3

4

5

Surprised

Source: Adapted from C. Bartneck et al. (2009)

While robotics engineers are interested to collect this kind of subjective data, the researchers report that they tend to devise their own unique questionnaires.[footnote 12] This poses two problems:

§ There is no test of the questionnaire's validity or reliability; and

§ There is no way to compare the results between different studies or over time.[footnote 13]

The Godspeed questionnaire solves both problems. Since its publication in 2009, the questionnaire has been translated into 12 languages[footnote 14] and has been cited more than 1,100 times.[footnote 15] Professor Croft has since joined the faculty at Monash University to continue her work in the field of human-robot interaction.[footnote 16] She hopes to continue her work toward making possible 'a robot in every home', simple enough so that anyone can program it.[footnote 17]

Possible impossible: Preventing rotavirus infections

Before Ruth Bishop discovered rotavirus, a highly contagious disease that causes severe gastroenteritis, around 10,000 Australian children under the age of five were hospitalised with severe vomiting and diarrhoea each year.[footnote 18] Professor Bishop began looking into the cause of 'gastro' at the Royal Children's Hospital in 1965 and, in 1973, Bishop, Geoffrey Davidson, Ian Holmes and Brian Ruck discovered what they named 'rotavirus'. Rota means wheel in Latin and was chosen because under electron microscopy the structure was wheel-like.[footnote 19]

After this discovery, studies showed that rotavirus was causing early childhood deaths on every continent and the World Health Organization supported a drive to develop a vaccine.[footnote 20] A vaccine developed in 1997 has worked well in Australia and Europe; however, the virus still kills an estimated 215,000 children under the age of five every year.[footnote 21] Researchers still believe it is possible to prevent rotavirus across the world, with recent discoveries by scientists at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute giving more hope that all children could be protected from this disease. In 2013, Professor Bishop was the first woman to be awarded the Florey Medal and renowned immunologist Sir Gus Nossal stated that her discovery of rotavirus is a 'great hallmark of Australian science'.[footnote 22]

Possible impossible: Reducing landfill waste

In 2017–18, it is estimated that 4.4 million tonnes of waste ended up in Australian landfill.[footnote 23] This includes organics, paper and cardboard, packaging glass, plastics and e-waste. The impact of this waste on the environment has concerned many Victorians and some, such as Katy Barfield and Abigail and Jamie Forsyth, developed innovative ways to reduce landfill.

Yume Food

Yume Food, founded in 2014 by Katy Barfield, aims to 'create a world without waste by facilitating the sale and donation of surplus food that may have otherwise been discarded'.[footnote 24] Barfield noticed the amount of food that was being discarded by the commercial food sector and decided to do something about it. Yume states that, each year, 4.1 million out of the 7.3 million tonnes of Australian food waste comes from the commercial food sector. Barfield developed an online marketplace which allows suppliers and buyers to connect and stop surplus food from ending up in landfill. Yume estimates that over the next five years, their estimated impact will be the equivalent to 20,140 cars off the road.[footnote 25]

KeepCups

 

KeepCup

Source: Freepik

Melburnians are well-known for their love of coffee and picking up a takeaway coffee on the way to work is part of many people's routines. According to Sustainability Victoria, Australians throw out 2.7 million single-use disposable coffee cups every day. This adds up to one billion per year.[footnote 26] Melbourne café owners, brother and sister Abigail and Jamie Forsyth, noticed how many coffee cups were being used every day and created the first barista-standard reusable coffee cup.[footnote 27] In 2019, KeepCup estimated that its users have diverted billions of non-recyclable, single-use cups from landfill. In 2018, a lifecycle analysis of reusable cups showed that KeepCups have a lower environmental impact than a single use paper/polypropylene cup after 24 days (assuming one use a day).[footnote 28] After ten days, the KeepCup has a lower environmental impact than composting cups. Since then, the reusable coffee cup industry has boomed with many considering it a necessity when they leave the house.

Possible impossible: Identifying elements with light

Craig Johnson was only five years old in 1968, when a can of petrol in his backyard caught fire. His clothes burnt in seconds and he was rushed to hospital. Doctors worked for weeks to treat his burns, but nearly lost hope when a mysterious complication arose. Craig had begun to have 'violent convulsions' that his doctors could not explain.[footnote 29]

Luckily for Craig, doctors at the Children's Medical Research Foundation in Sydney had access to an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, a device patented by Melbourne CSIRO physicist Sir Alan Walsh in 1954.[footnote 30] The analysis revealed Craig had a serious magnesium deficiency from his burns—and while the condition may have been difficult to diagnose, it was simple to treat. After the missing magnesium was replaced, the convulsions ceased and Craig had an otherwise 'uneventful recovery'.[footnote 31]

 

Examples of emission and absorption spectra

Source: Adobe Stock

Before Walsh's breakthrough, laboratories often relied on flame emission spectrometry to test for the presence of elements like magnesium. This method involves heating a sample in a flame or furnace to extremely high temperatures (1,700–3,700 °C), which causes some metallic elements to emit light at specific wavelengths.[footnote 32] Each element produces its own unique emission spectrum, like a brightly coloured elemental 'fingerprint'.

Unfortunately, even these temperatures are insufficient for all but eight elements.[footnote 33] Walsh's insight was that a broader range of elements (more than sixty-five in total) could be detected by measuring which wavelengths of light are absorbed by a sample, rather than which wavelengths are emitted.[footnote 34]

The impact of atomic absorption spectroscopy is difficult to overstate. It has applications across fields as diverse as agriculture, mineral exploration and food analysis.[footnote 35] In 1998, a former Commonwealth Minister for Science remarked, 'I don't know if there is a single significant laboratory anywhere in the world that doesn't have an atomic absorption spectrophotometer'.[footnote 36]

Possible impossible: Restoring lost hearing and vision

When Graeme Clark successfully implanted a bionic ear, he forever changed the lives of many who had lost their hearing or were never previously able to hear. Rod Saunders, the first recipient of the implant, had lost his hearing after a car accident and had adapted to life without it, but Clark's successful implant allowed him to hear again.[footnote 37]

 

Cochlear implant

Source: Adobe Stock

Building on research into nerves in the ear cavity from France and the United States, Clark, a Professor of Otolaryngology at the University of Melbourne, implanted the first device in 1978.[footnote 38] Clark differed from other researchers, believing that implant recipients should hear running speech, not just environmental sounds; that the implant should be multi-channel, rather than a single electrode; and be totally imbedded in the skull and activated by radio signals.[footnote 39] Instead of amplifying sounds like a traditional hearing aid, cochlear implants directly stimulate any functioning auditory nerves in the inner ear. Some of the difficulties the team were facing were solved during a trip to the beach where Clark, using a seashell and some grass came up with an idea for how to insert wires into the delicate cochlea.[footnote 40]

Professor Clark founded the Bionic Ear Institute in 1986 (the name was changed to the Bionic Institute in 2011).[footnote 41] The Australian Cochlear Implant has allowed 350,000 people in over 120 countries to hear again.[footnote 42]

Victorians are also leading the race to develop the first Bionic Eye. So far, seven patients including Dianne Ashworth have had devices implanted. Ms. Ashworth, the first to undergo surgery to implant the device, described the first time it was turned on:

I was waiting, waiting … I had these goggles on [footnote to track her eye movement] and I didn't know what to expect. I don't know if anyone did … Then all of a sudden, I could see a little flash. It was like a little splinter … then that turned into splotches of black and white … remember when the first big image came, I thought, 'wow'… I was ecstatic that it worked, but I was also so happy for the team. It was something I could give to them after all the work they'd done. That made me happier than seeing.[footnote 43]

Bionic eye research has focused on helping patients with retinitis pigmentosa—an umbrella term for many inherited retinal diseases—achieve what researchers call 'sense of vision'. A 'sense of vision' means little flashes of light which can help patients detect edges, outlines and movement, not detailed vision.[footnote 44] An electrode array is implanted between the two back layers of the eye (suprachoroidal location), a location chosen as the implantation site that is relatively easy, safe, stable and reliable.[footnote 45] The 2012 device implanted in three patients used an external plug to connect electrodes to lab equipment, so it could only be used in a laboratory setting. The updated device used in the 2014 trial is fully implantable and portable, allowing recipients to use it at home.[footnote 46]

Much of this research was completed by Bionic Vision Australia, a consortium of some of Australia's leading universities and research institutes which was funded by the Australian Research Council between 2010 and 2016. The consortium included the Bionics Institute and the Centre for Eye Research Australia and technologies that were developed are now being commercialised by Bionic Vision Technologies Ltd.[footnote 47] Professor Anthony Burkitt was awarded the 2019 Victoria Prize for Science and Innovation, in recognition of his work in developing a bionic eye.[footnote 48]

Possible impossible: Determining the age of the Budj Bim eel traps

With his 2014 book, Dark Emu, writer and researcher Bruce Pascoe popularised the notion that pre-colonial Aboriginal Australians cultivated plants and animals for food. He catalogues dozens of accounts of Aboriginal agriculture and aquaculture, drawn primarily from the writings and diaries of 19th-century European colonists. This challenged the prevalent colonial depiction of Aboriginal Australians as hunter-gatherers.[footnote 49]

Among his findings were historical records of aquaculture across Victoria's western region. He cites the pastoralist James Dawson's 1881 account:

Eels are prized by the Aborigines as an article of food above all other fish. They are captured in great numbers by building stone barriers across rapid streams, and diverting the current through an opening into a funnel-mouthed basket pipe, three or four feet long, two inches in diameter, and closed at the lower end. When the streams extend over the marshes in time of flood, clay embankments, two to three feet high, and sometimes three to four hundred yards in length, are built across them, and the current is confined to narrow openings in which the pipe baskets are placed. The eels, proceeding down the stream in the beginning of the winter floods, go headforemost into the pipes, and do not attempt to turn back.[footnote 50]

The escaped convict, William Buckley, observed similar harvesting systems at Lake Condah in 1836.[footnote 51] However, it wasn't until the winter of 1977 that uncharacteristically heavy rains revealed to archaeologists what the traditional owners of the land—the Gunditjmara—already knew: that a sophisticated network of artificial drainage channels and holding ponds had existed near Lake Condah.[footnote 52] Researchers soon began to collaborate with the Gunditjmara to support cultural knowledge of the eel traps with physical evidence.

 

Lake sediment core with laminations

Source: Phil Higuera

Professor Lesley Head conducted one of the earliest attempts to estimate the age of the traps at Lake Condah in 1989.[footnote 53] She was able to compare the locations of surviving traps to historic water levels at the lake, to deduce when the traps might have been in use. The main form of evidence she used to reconstruct the history of the basin was pollen found in the lake sediments.[footnote 54] Because changes to a local climate affect how organisms in that ecosystem grow and reproduce, palaeoecologists can use indirect evidence found in pollen, tree growth, charcoal and oxygen isotopes to look back in time.[footnote 55] Head estimated that the lowest remaining traps at Lake Condah were most likely operable about 2,000 years ago.[footnote 56]

More recently, a group of researchers from Monash University, led by Professor Ian McNiven, have used radiocarbon dating technology to establish the age of the Muldoons Trap Complex in the Lake Condah region.[footnote 57] Radiocarbon dating methods make use of the predictable way in which the radioactive isotope carbon-14 decays. Like clockwork, half of the carbon-14 in a sample will decay every 5,730 years, while the amount of stable isotope carbon-12 remains constant. By measuring the ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 in a sample, and comparing it against known atmospheric ratios over time, archaeologists can estimate an object's age—even if there are no other excavated objects nearby to use for reference.[footnote 58]

This technology revealed that charcoal fragments taken from a channel feature at Muldoons Trap Complex were at least 6,600 years old.[footnote 59] This estimate was cited in the dossier nominating the Budj Bim cultural landscape for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2017.[footnote 60] In 2019, Budj Bim was accepted onto the list. As observed by Denis Rose, project manager for the Gunditj Mirring Traditional Owners Aboriginal Corporation, this places Budj Bim alongside other cultural icons such as the Pyramids at Giza, Stonehenge and the Acropolis.[footnote 61]

 

Possible impossible: Ordinary Victorians contributing to scientific discoveries

 

Baron Ferdinand von Muller

Photographer: J. W. Lindt

Source: State Library of Victoria (identifier H37475/24)

Citizen science is the 'practice of public participation and collaboration in scientific research to increase scientific knowledge'.[footnote 62] Since the 1800s, Victorians have enthusiastically contributed to a variety of citizen science projects. The first government botanist and director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, established a network of citizen plant collectors across the state, who added to a research collection of specimens.[footnote 63]

The Victorian National Parks Association's 'ReefWatch' is a marine citizen science program which has run four projects: the Great Victorian Fish Count, Adopt a Sponge, PlateWatch and ReefCam.[footnote 64]

Adopt a Sponge came about during the redevelopment of the Blairgowrie Pier. Pier diving company Dive 2U organised for volunteers from the Victorian dive community to save more than 5,000 sponges and ascidians (sea squirts) which were otherwise going to go to landfill.[footnote 65] In a project never before attempted on this scale, the crew devised a method to remove sponges from the pier's timber panels and glue them to new panels. The care given to the marine life and the success of the rehoming has given scientists and researchers hope that during future structure upgrades, marine life will be able to be maintained.[footnote 66] Other citizen science accomplishments coordinated by ReefWatch include:

§ Gaining protection for the western blue groper after confirmed sightings in coastal waters; and

§ Discovering never-seen or rarely-seen-in-Victoria fish species, including the spotted grubfish, silver dory, short-nosed boarfish and spiny anglerfish.[footnote 67]

 

Possible impossible: Innovating in the age of COVID-19

 

Alpaca

Source: Freepik

In 2020, medical researchers across the world are in a race to develop a vaccine to stop the spread of COVID-19, but East Gippsland might be one of the only places on Earth where the research takes place in a paddock! A team of researchers from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Melbourne are studying a herd of Bairnsdale alpacas that have been immunised with a deactivated protein fragment from the SARS-CoV-2 virus (this does not harm the alpacas).[footnote 68]

Animals in the Camelidae family (which includes alpacas, camels and llamas) have an unusual immune system which produces two types of antibodies. One type is similar to human antibodies, but the other is much smaller—only 10 nanometres across, just wider than a strand of DNA. These nanobodies can attach to narrow 'crevices' on the surface of the virus, neutralising it in ways a human antibody can't.[footnote 69]

Extracting and purifying the nanobodies won't be easy, nor will disguising them as human cells so our immune systems won't perceive them as threats. The researchers don't expect to be first out the gate with a functioning vaccine but, if they are successful, nanobody therapy could become a powerful tool in the fight against COVID-19.[footnote 70]

Researchers at the Doherty Institute (named after Victoria's own Nobel Prize winner, Peter Doherty) are also assisting with the testing and treatment of COVID-19, including developing a saliva test.[footnote 71] Although a swab test is more accurate and is preferred, there are instances when saliva testing is a useful alternative—for example, when there are limited staff to collect swabs or a high number of tests required; when swabs and personal protective equipment (PPE) are in short supply; or when a nasal swab is difficult to conduct, such as on a child.[footnote 72] The Doherty Institute recently validated a COVID-19 nasal swab test developed by biotech company GeneWorks. This test will be incredibly useful in tracking new cases, as results can be processed in just 20 minutes![footnote 73] The Doherty Institute, with the University of Melbourne and the Royal Melbourne Hospital, is also involved in developing a vaccine for COVID-10 and was the first to grow COVID-19 in a laboratory outside of China.[footnote 74]

 

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[footnote 1] Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (date unknown) 'Our top ten inventions', CSIRO website.

[footnote 2] Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (date unknown) 'Relenza - the first effective flu-fighter', CSIRO website.

[footnote 3] C. Ward (2011) 'Relenza' CSIROpedia website; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (date unknown) 'Relenza - the first effective flu-fighter', op. cit.

[footnote 4] Ward (2011) op. cit.

[footnote 5] ibid.

[footnote 6] Niska (date unknown) 'Meet our robot team', Niska website.

[footnote 7] ibid.

[footnote 8] I. Zamalloa et al. (2017) 'Dissecting robotics – historical overview and future perspectives', arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.08617, p. 2.

[footnote 9] ibid.

[footnote 10] SoftBank Robotics (date unknown) 'Pepper', SoftBank website.

[footnote 11] C. Bartneck et al. (2009) 'Measurement instruments for the anthropomorphism, animacy, likeability, perceived intelligence, and perceived safety of robots', International Journal of Social Robotics, 1(1), p. 71.

[footnote 12] Bartneck et al. (2009) op. cit., p. 72.

[footnote 13] ibid.

[footnote 14] C. Bartneck (2008) 'The Godspeed questionnaire series', Christoph Bartneck, Ph.D. website.

[footnote 15] Estimate retrieved from Google Scholar, 22 July 2020.

[footnote 16] Monash University (date unknown) '<href="#about">Professor Elizabeth Croft', Monash University website.

[footnote 17] Inspiring Victoria (date unknown) 'Possible Impossibles with Professor Elizabeth Croft', Inspiring Victoria website.

[footnote 18] Department of Health (date unknown) 'Rotavirus', DoH website.

[footnote 19] R. Bishop (2009) Discovery of rotavirus: implications for child health, Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 24(3), p. 82.

[footnote 20] Bishop (2000) op. cit., p. 83.

[footnote 21] Murdoch Children's Research Institute (2018) Australian researchers successfully develop a rotavirus vaccine which could benefit millions of children', Research News, Murdoch Children's Research Institute website.

[footnote 22] Australian Institute of Policy and Science (date unknown) 'CSL Florey Medal', AIPS website; Murdoch Children's Research Institute (date unknown) '30 years of life-changing discoveries: Professor Ruth Bishop and Professor Graeme Barnes', Murdoch Children's Research Institute website.

[footnote 23] R Godfrey, J Trinh, B Grant &amp; C Wardle (2019) 'Victorian waste flows', report prepared for Infrastructure Victoria, p. i.

[footnote 24] Yume (date unknown) 'About Yume Food', Yume website.

[footnote 25] ibid.

[footnote 26] Sustainability Victoria (date unknown) 'Eco-friendly alternatives to disposable coffee cups', Sustainability Victoria website.

[footnote 27] KeepCup (date unknown) 'The KeepCup story', KeepCup website.

[footnote 28] J. Bengtsson (2018) Reusable coffee cups life cycle assessment and benchmark, Manly, Edge Environmental, p. 23.

[footnote 29] (1968) 'Answer to the puzzle of a burnt boy', Sydney Morning Herald, 14 September, p. 6.

[footnote 30] P. Hannaford (2000) 'Alan Walsh 1916–1998', Historical Records of Australian Science, 13(2).

[footnote 31] (1968) 'Answer to the puzzle of a burnt boy', op. cit.

[footnote 32] R. Twyman (2005) 'Atomic emission spectrometry', Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, 2nd edition, p. 195.

[footnote 33] A. McKay (1976) Surprise and enterprise – fifty years of science for Australia, Melbourne, A.E. Keating, p. 6.

[footnote 34] ibid.

[footnote 35] P. Hannaford (2000) op. cit.

[footnote 36] ibid.

[footnote 37] J. Epstein (1989) The story of the bionic ear, South Yarra, Hyland House, p. 16.

[footnote 38] ibid., p. 23.

[footnote 39] ibid., p. 40.

[footnote 40] ibid., p. 41.

[footnote 41] Bionics Institute (date unknown) 'Our History', Bionics institute website.

[footnote 42] ibid.

[footnote 43] K. Hagen (2012) 'And the blind shall see- thanks to the bionic eye', The Age, 31 August.

[footnote 44] (2019) 'The future of Australia's bionic eye', Centre for Eye Research Australia website.

[footnote 45] Hagen (2012) op. cit.

[footnote 46] Centre for Eye Research Australia (2019) 'The future of Australia's bionic eye', Centre for Eye Research Australia website; Centre for Eye Research Australia (2014) 'National investment in the bionic eye takes it from the lab to the real world', Centre for Eye Research Australia website.

[footnote 47] Bionic Vision Australia (date unknown) 'About BVA', Bionic Vision Australia website.

[footnote 48] Veski (date unknown) 'Professor Anthony Burkitt', Veski website.

[footnote 49] B. Pascoe (2014) Dark emu – black seeds: agriculture or accident?, Broome, Magabala Books.

[footnote 50] J. Dawson (1981) Australian Aborigines, Netley, Griffin Press Limited, p. 94. (Original work published 1881).

[footnote 51] Pascoe (2014) op. cit., p. 58.

[footnote 52] I. McNiven (2017) 'The detective work behind the Budj Bim eel traps World Heritage bid', The Conversation, 8 February.

[footnote 53] ibid.

[footnote 54] L. Head (1989) 'Using palaeoecology to date Aboriginal fishtraps at Lake Condah, Victoria', Archaeology in Oceania, 24, p. 110.

[footnote 55] Carleton College Science Education Resource Center (2016) 'Paleoecology: a window into the past', SERC website.

[footnote 56] Head (1989) op. cit., p. 110.

[footnote 57] I. McNiven et al. (2012) 'Dating Aboriginal stone-walled fish traps at Lake Condah, southeast Australia', Journal of Archaeological Science, 39(2).

[footnote 58] R. Wood (2012) 'Explainer: what is radiocarbon dating and how does it work?', The Conversation, 28 November.

[footnote 59] McNiven et al. (2012) op. cit., p. 268.

[footnote 60] Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Energy (2017) Budj Bim cultural landscape world heritage nomination, Canberra, Department of the Environment and Energy.

[footnote 61] M. Neal (2019) 'Ancient Indigenous aquaculture site Budj Bim added to UNESCO World Heritage list', ABC News, 6 July.

[footnote 62] National Geographic (date unknown) 'Citizen Science', Resource Library, Encyclopedic Entry, National Geographic website.

[footnote 63] Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research (date unknown) Citizen science: You and nature, Melbourne, Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning.

[footnote 64] Victorian National Parks Association (date unknown) 'Reef Watch', VNPA website.

[footnote 65] Victorian National Parks Association (date unknown) 'Adopt a Sponge', VNPA website.

[footnote 66] ibid.

[footnote 67] Victorian National Parks Association (date unknown) 'Reef Watch', op. cit.

[footnote 68] Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (2020) 'Unique immune system of the alpaca being used in COVID-19 research', ANSTO website.

[footnote 69] L. Mannix (2020) 'Alpacas provide new hope for a COVID-19 cure', The Age, 10 August.

[footnote 70] ibid.

[footnote 71] Doherty Institute (2020) Use of saliva as a diagnostic specimen for COVID-19, media release, 25 June.

[footnote 72] D. Williamson, A. Cheng &amp; S. Lewin (2020) 'Explainer: what's the new coronavirus saliva test, and how does it work?', The Conversation, 3 July.

[footnote 73] Doherty Institute (2020) ''Near-care' test that can detect COVID-19 in 20 minutes validated, Doherty Institute website.

[footnote 74] Doherty Institute (2020) 'The most promising vaccines for COVID-19', Doherty Institute website; The University of Melbourne (2020) 'Doherty Institute awarded AU$3.2 million to accelerate a vaccine for COVID-19', University of Melbourne website.